Update on stats 2019-03

Viktor Dukhovni ietf-dane at dukhovni.org
Mon Apr 1 07:30:33 CEST 2019

Summary:  The DANE domain count is now 1,107,851

	  The number of domains that return DNSSEC-validated replies
	  in response to MX queries is 9,525,120.  Thus DANE TLSA
	  is deployed on 11.63% of domains with DNSSEC.
Credits:  The coverage of DNSSEC domains continues to improve with
	  ongoing data support from Paul Vixie of Farsight Security.
	  Credits also due to ICANN for gTLD data via CZDS, and to
	  the TLD registries for .CH, .COM, .DK, .FR, .INFO, .IS, .LI,
	  .NL, .NU, .ORG and .SE.  More data sources of ccTLD
	  signed delegations welcome.

As of today I count 1,107,851 domains with correct SMTP DANE TLSA
records at every primary MX host that accepts connections[1].  As
expected, the bulk of the DANE domains are hosted by the DNS/email
hosting providers who've enabled DANE support for the customer
domains they host.  The top 20 MX host providers by domain count

  682345 one.com
  122842 transip.nl
   97106 domeneshop.no
   35828 active24.com
   32803 vevida.com
   24093 udmedia.de
   16091 flexfilter.nl
   12932 onebit.cz
   11039 bhosted.nl
    5992 netzone.ch
    5657 previder.nl
    3901 ips.nl
    3535 interconnect.nl
    2490 provalue.nl
    2343 nederhost.nl
    1646 nmugroup.com
    1445 yourdomainprovider.net
    1328 hi7.de
    1308 xcellerate.nl
    1307 prolocation.net

The real numbers are surely larger, because I don't have access to
the full zone data for most ccTLDs, especially .no/.cz/.de/.eu/.be.
Speaking of countries, the IPv4 GeoIP distribution of DANE-enabled
MX hosts shows the below top 20 countries (each unique IP address
is counted, so multi-homed MX hosts are perhaps somewhat

  4977 TOTAL
  1680 DE, Germany
  1026 US, United States
   674 NL, Netherlands
   382 FR, France
   204 GB, United Kingdom
   170 CZ, Czechia
   104 CA, Canada
    80 SG, Singapore
    71 CH, Switzerland
    69 SE, Sweden
    48 DK, Denmark
    45 IE, Ireland
    40 AU, Australia
    39 AT, Austria
    38 BR, Brazil
    33 FI, Finland
    29 PL, Poland
    25 RU, Russia
    21 JP, Japan
    18 IT, Italy

IPv6 is still comparatively rare for MX hosts, and the top 20
countries by DANE MX host IPv6 GeoIP are:

  1834 TOTAL
   677 DE, Germany
   309 NL, Netherlands
   221 FR, France
   170 US, United States
   111 CZ, Czechia
    51 GB, United Kingdom
    40 SE, Sweden
    27 RU, Russia
    27 CH, Switzerland
    26 CA, Canada
    20 AT, Austria
    13 DK, Denmark
    12 IE, Ireland
    12 AU, Australia
    11 NO, Norway
    10 FI, Finland
    10 BR, Brazil
     9 SI, Slovenia
     7 UA, Ukraine
     7 PL, Poland

There are 4176 unique zones in which the underlying MX hosts are
found, this counts each of the above providers as just one zone,
so is a measure of the breadth of adoption in terms of servers

The number of published MX host TLSA RRsets found is 6156.  These
cover 6594 distinct MX hosts (some MX hosts share the same TLSA
records through CNAMEs).

The number of domains that at some point were listed in Gmail's
email transparency report is 229 (this is my ad-hoc criterion for
a domain being a large-enough actively used email domain).  Of
these, 114 are in recent (last 90 days of) reports:

  univie.ac.at             ruhr-uni-bochum.de     minbzk.nl
  gmx.at                   tu-darmstadt.de        mycom.nl
  nic.br                   tum.de                 ouderportaal.nl
  registro.br              uni-erlangen.de        overheid.nl
  gmx.ch                   unitybox.de            pathe.nl
  open.ch                  unitymedia.de          photofacts.nl
  anubisnetworks.com       web.de                 photofactsacademy.nl
  fmc-na.com               dk-hostmaster.dk       politie.nl
  gmx.com                  egmontpublishing.dk    previder.nl
  habr.com                 netic.dk               rijksoverheid.nl
  hotelsinduitsland.com    tilburguniversity.edu  ssonet.nl
  kpn.com                  dovecot.fi             transip.nl
  mail.com                 ac-strasbourg.fr       truetickets.nl
  one.com                  insee.fr               utwente.nl
  solvinity.com            octopuce.fr            uvt.nl
  t-2.com                  web200.hu              xs4all.nl
  telfort.com              comcast.net            domeneshop.no
  trashmail.com            gmx.net                handelsbanken.no
  xfinity.com              habramail.net          webcruitermail.no
  xfinityhomesecurity.com  hr-manager.net         atelkamera.nu
  xfinitymobile.com        inexio.net             aegee.org
  active24.cz              mpssec.net             debian.org
  cuni.cz                  procurios.net          freebsd.org
  itesco.cz                riseup.net             gentoo.org
  klubpevnehozdravi.cz     t-2.net                ietf.org
  onebit.cz                transip.net            isc.org
  smtp.cz                  vevida.net             netbsd.org
  virusfree.cz             xs4all.net             openssl.org
  bayern.de                atletiekunie.nl        ozlabs.org
  bund.de                  bhosted.nl             samba.org
  elster.de                bluerail.nl            torproject.org
  fau.de                   boozyshop.nl           asf.com.pt
  freenet.de               corpoflow.nl           handelsbanken.se
  gmx.de                   hierinloggen.nl        iis.se
  jpberlin.de              interconnect.nl        minmyndighetspost.se
  lrz.de                   intermax.nl            personligalmanacka.se
  mail.de                  mailplus.nl            skatteverket.se
  posteo.de                markteffectmail.nl     govtrack.us

Of the DANE email domains, 2044 are listed in the Alexa top 1 million
(web site) list.

Of the ~1.11 million domains, 2403 have "partial" TLSA records,
that cover only a subset of the (secondary) MX hosts.  While this
protects traffic to some of the MX hosts, such domains are still
vulnerable to the usual active attacks via the remaining MX hosts.

The number of domains with incorrect TLSA records or failure to
advertise STARTTLS (even though TLSA records are published) stands
today at 376.  Some of these have additional MX hosts that don't
have broken TLSA records, so mail can still arrive via the remaining
MX hosts.  A partial list is available at:


To avoid getting listed, please make sure to monitor the validity
of your own TLSA records, and implement a reliable key rotation
procedure.  See:



After eliminating parked domains that do not accept email, the
number of "real" email domains with bad DNSSEC support stands at
1160.  The top 10 name server operators with problem domains are:

  544 mijnhostingpartner.nl
   95 epik.com
   42 metaregistrar.nl
   35 dotserv.com
   35 binero.se
   34 tiscomhosting.nl
   31 nrdns.nl
   29 sylconia.net
   26 active24.cz
   20 movenext.nl

   [ Some of these also have denial of existence problems at many
     more domains that don't receive mail, so the problem is not
     operationally significant in those cases, but could become
     larger, if more email-enabled signed domains start using these
     servers.  For the top two, these additional domains number
     well over one thousand each. ]

If anyone has good contacts at some of these providers, please
encourage them to remediate not only the broken domains (I can send
them a list), but also the root cause that makes the breakage

Seven of the domains all whose nameservers have broken denial of
existence appear in historical Google reports:



[1] Some domains deliberately include MX hosts that are always
down, presumably as a hurdle to botnet SMTP code that gives up
where real MTAs might persist.  I am not a fan of this type of
defence (it can also impose undue latency on legitimate email).
However, provided the dead hosts still have TLSA records, (which
don't need to match anything, just need to exist and be well-formed)
there's no loss of security.

More information about the dane-users mailing list